Access the keyboard
Tap in a text box and the keyboard will appear.

Close the keyboard
Tap the keyboard with an arrow down icon on the bottom left of the keyboard.

Turn on CAPS
Tap the up arrow/Shift key twice.

Access the special characters on the top of each letter
Tap and hold the desired key until the desired character appears.

Access the number pad
Tap the 12# button on the keyboard.

Change the keyboard settings
Tap the gear icon on the keyboard.